Principles of Anatomy & Physiology

Discussions on The Human Body

what is the advantage of this?

New Theory Explains How Cellular Compasses Work

Scientists from the Politecnico di Torino in Italy and the Landau Institute of Theoretical Physics in Russia have derived a theory to describe how eukaryotic cells (such as those found in all higher organisms) respond to chemical signals in their environments. Considering that coordinated sensing of and movement toward chemical signals is a vital processes in embryology (how cells know where to go in fashioning the organism), inflammation, and immune response, directional maneuvering at the cellular level is quite important. Here’s what happens.

First, receptors in the membranes of the cells become activated by the presence of trace amounts of chemicals—even down to the nano-molar level or about one molecule in a cubic micron—in the cells’ vicinity. Not only do the receptors sense the presence of the attractants but, through the differential activation of 10,000 or more receptors distributed along the body of the cell, the direction of the source of the attractant can be located to within a few degrees. Ability to train upon a 5% chemical gradient allows the cell to know where it should be going, whether to find food, antigens, or to take up its place in a larger multi-cellular structure.

Second, a cascade of polymerization steps now ensues within a few minutes. Consequently the cell develops head and tail structures, the better to make possible travel along the chemical gradient (chemotaxis). In nature, cells have also been known to plan their travel by exploiting thermal gradients (thermotaxis) and electrical gradients (galvanotaxis).

According to Andrea Gamba ( and coauthors the new results consist of being able now to demonstrate in a mechanistic way how the cell’s directional sensing and response comes about through a kind of self-organized phase transition; when the chemical gradient exceeds a certain threshold level the dynamic of growth of clusters of signaling molecules on the cell surface fine-tunes to sense the slight unbalance in activated receptors and provides a fast polarization in the direction of the gradient, thus providing a compass bearing which is able to initiate the modification in the cellular structure.

The scientists argue that the physical amount of space along the body of large eukaryotic cells needed for making such an astute directional assessment might explain why bacteria (with much smaller bodies) do not have a spatial system of directional sensing. (Gamba et al., Physical Review Letters, 12 October 2007


FDA Warns of E. coli Risk From Nestle Toll House Cookie Dough
Nestle Recalls All Varieties of Refrigerated Raw Toll House Cookie Dough Products
By Miranda Hitti
WebMD Health News
Reviewed by Louise Chang, MD

June 19, 2009 — The FDA and CDC today warned people not to eat any varieties of prepackaged Nestle Toll House refrigerated cookie dough products because of possible E. coli contamination.

If you have any of those products, don’t eat them. The FDA advises consumers to throw the products out — and not to eat any raw products that are supposed to be cooked or baked first.

E. coli bacteria can cause abdominal cramping, vomiting, nausea, and diarrhea (which may be bloody). Most healthy people recover within a week, but serious complications can arise and are most common in young children, older people, and people with weak immune systems.

The FDA and CDC are investigating reports of E. coli infection that may be linked to eating raw cookie dough. Since March 2009, there have been 66 reports of illness in 28 states.

Those cases include 25 people who were hospitalized, seven of whom had a severe complication called hemolytic uremic syndrome, which affects the kidneys. No deaths have been reported.

In a news release, Nestle says that “out of an abundance of caution,” it’s recalling all varieties of Nestle Toll House refrigerated Cookie Bar Dough, Cookie Dough Tub, Cookie Dough Tube, Limited Edition Cookie Dough items, Seasonal Cookie Dough, and Ultimates Cookie Bar Dough.

Nestle is offering a full refund to consumers who return the products to grocery stores. For more information, call Nestle Consumer Services at 800-559-5025 or visit Nestle’s web site at
Nestle Cookie Dough Recall: Full List

The Nestle Toll House cookie dough recall doesn’t include any packaged baked Toll House cookies, Toll House morsels, chocolate baking bars, cocoa, or Dreyer’s and Edy’s ice cream products with Nestle Toll House cookie dough ingredients.

Here is a full list of all Nestle Toll House cookie dough products that are being recalled:

Cookie and Brown Dough Bar:

* Chocolate Chip bar 16.5 oz
* Chocolate Chunk bar 16.5 oz
* Walnut Chocolate Chip bar 16.5 oz
* Jumbo Chocolate Chip bar 16.5 oz
* Oatmeal Raisin bar 16.5 oz
* Sugar Cookies bar 16.5 oz
* Mini Chocolate Chip bar 16.5 oz
* Mini Brownie Bites bar 16 oz
* Fudgy Brownie With Peanut Butter Filling 19 oz

Cookie Dough Tub:

* Chocolate Chip tub 40 oz
* Chocolate Chip tub 80 oz (5 lb)
* Sugar tub 40 oz
* Gingerbread tub 40 oz
* Peanut Butter tub 40 oz

Tube (Chub) Dough:

* Chocolate Chip tube 16.5 oz
* Chocolate Chip tube 32 oz

Ultimates Cookie Bar Dough:

* Ultimates Peanut Butter Cups, Chips & Chocolate Chunks bar 16 oz
* Ultimates White Chip Macadamia Nut bar 16 oz
* Ultimates Chocolate Chip & Chunks with Pecans bar 16 oz
* Ultimates Chocolate Chip Lovers 16 oz
* Ultimates Turtles bar 16 oz
* Ultimates Peanut Butter Lovers bar 16 oz
* Ultimates Chocolate Chip with Caramel Filling bar 16 oz
* Ultimates Chocolate Chip with Chocolate Filling bar 16 oz

Seasonal Cookie and Brownie Dough:

* Valentine Hearts Sugar Cookie Shapes 15.5 oz
* Valentine Swirled Chocolate Chip bar 16 oz
* Fudgy Brownies With Raspberry Filling 19 oz
* Easter Eggs Sugar Cookie Shapes 15.5 oz
* Easter Swirled Chocolate Chip bar 16 oz
* Easter Swirled Mini Brownie Bites bar 18 oz
* Red, White & Blue Swirled Choc Chip bar 16 oz
* Halloween Pumpkin Pals Sugar Cookies 13.5 oz
* Halloween Swirled Chocolate Chip bar 16 oz
* Halloween Swirled Fudgy Brownies bar 18 oz
* Christmas Shapes Sugar Cookies 15.5 oz
* Christmas Swirled Chocolate Chip bar 16 oz
* Christmas Swirled Fudgy Brownies bar 18 oz
* Limited Edition Mint Swirled Chocolate Chip 16 oz

Discontinued Varieties:

* Valentine Hearts Sugar Cookies 13.5 oz
* Easter Brownie Bar 18 oz
* Easter Bunnies Sugar Cookies 13.5 oz
* Halloween Sugar Shapes 15.5 oz
* Christmas Sugar Cookie Tube 16 oz
* Oatmeal Cranberry Cookie Tub 48 oz
I’m sorry to hear that Jess. Make sure you bring that back where you got it and get your money back. Hope you feel better soon.

Civil libertarians did u c ruling that spying on Americans through the internet is not actionable because?

it is too generalized, because nearly everyone has a telephone and internet connection per a San Francisco judge?

” Court Rules That Mass Surveillance of Americans is Immune From Judicial Review
San Francisco – A federal judge has dismissed Jewel v. NSA, a case from the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) on behalf of AT&T customers challenging the National Security Agency’s mass surveillance of millions of ordinary Americans’ phone calls and emails.

“We’re deeply disappointed in the judge’s ruling,” said EFF Legal Director Cindy Cohn. “This ruling robs innocent telecom customers of their privacy rights without due process of law. Setting limits on Executive power is one of the most important elements of America’s system of government, and judicial oversight is a critical part of that.”

In the ruling, issued late Thursday, U.S. District Court Chief Judge Vaughn Walker held that the privacy harm to millions of Americans from the illegal spying dragnet was not a “particularized injury” but instead a “generalized grievance” because almost everyone in the United States has a phone and Internet service.

“The alarming upshot of the court’s decision is that so long as the government spies on all Americans, the courts have no power to review or halt such mass surveillance even when it is flatly illegal and unconstitutional,” said EFF Senior Staff Attorney Kevin Bankston. “With new revelations of illegal spying being reported practically every other week — just this week, we learned that the FBI has been unlawfully obtaining Americans’ phone records using Post-It notes rather than proper legal process — the need for judicial oversight when it comes to government surveillance has never been clearer.”

Jewel v. NSA is aimed at ending the NSA’s dragnet surveillance of millions of ordinary Americans and holding accountable the government officials who illegally authorized it. Evidence in the case includes undisputed documents provided by former AT&T telecommunications technician Mark Klein showing AT&T has routed copies of Internet traffic to a secret room in San Francisco controlled by the NSA. That same evidence is central to Hepting v. AT&T, a class-action lawsuit that’s currently under appeal in the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 9th Circuit. ”
What do you think of this case?
SilverPhoenix, I’d rather enforce the one we have. Particularly given the clowns we know would be the ones to write a new one.

Stiff legs, dandruff, and some fur loss in my rabbit? Help?

My rabbit is getting older and her health isnt doing great. Her legs both front and rear seem to be a little stiff. She can hop around okay, but it does seem that she loses her balance when trying to groom herself or stand on her rear legs. She also has dandruff and some fur loss. I completley brushed her out today and got a big pile of fur. She looks a lot better now that I brushed her out, but now she has a couple of bald patches where the fur just completley came out when I was brushing her.

Im buying her a coat supplment and coat shampoo/conditioner tomorrow from petco. So that should help her fur problems, right? But what am I suppose to do for her stiff legs? I cant afford to take her to the vet to have her examined. I searched petco and petsmart online for some kind of joint supplement but they didnt have anything. Is there somewhere else I can buy this? Im also buying her a multi-vitamin thing you add to the water tomorrow as well. Its suppose to help boost her immune system to help her stay healthy. (it also benefits the coat as well).

So any advice? Will this stuff work good? All the customer reviews said the products were good. But I still have no idea what to get for her stiff legs. Any ideas as far as that goes?

Does body weight have an affect on how quick someone can test HIV +?

Does someone that is 120lbs have a better/quicker chance at testing positive for HIV than say a guy that is 220lbs? I know that the immune system is a big player in wether you test + or – but am not sure if someone that small has a chance at getting HIV quicker than that of a man of 220lbs….

And my 2nd question is….Can my doctor, my PCP, test for HIV? I have heard mixed reviews that he/she can, or cannot, and I just want to know the true fact on that, or is it just the Health Dept. that test for HIV?


With this news, should Obama be careful about what goes up his nose?

Nearly a third of all cocaine seized in the United States is laced with a dangerous veterinary medicine — a livestock de-worming drug that might enhance cocaine’s effects but has been blamed in at least three deaths and scores of serious illnesses.

The medication called levamisole has killed at least three people in the U.S. and Canada and sickened more than 100 others. It can be used in humans to treat colorectal cancer, but it severely weakens the body’s immune system, leaving patients vulnerable to fatal infections.

Scientific studies suggest levamisole might give cocaine a more intense high, possibly by increasing levels of dopamine, the brain’s “feel-good” neurotransmitters.

Drug Enforcement Administration documents reviewed by The Associated Press indicate that 30 percent of all U.S. cocaine seizures are tainted with the drug. And health officials told the AP that most physicians know virtually nothing about its risks.

Do you feed you dogs raw eggs? fda has a recall on eggs?

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE – August 13, 2010 – The following statement was released by officials of Wright County Egg regarding the US Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) on-farm records review and egg testing for Salmonella.

Wright County Egg of Galt, Iowa is voluntarily recalling specific Julian dates of shell eggs produced by their farms because they have the potential to be contaminated with Salmonella. Salmonella is an organism which can cause serious and sometimes fatal infections in young children, frail or elderly people, and others with weakened immune systems. Healthy persons infected with Salmonella often experience fever, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. In rare circumstances, infection with Salmonella can result in the organism getting into the bloodstream and producing more severe illnesses such as arterial infections, endocarditis or arthritis.

Eggs affected by this recall were distributed to food wholesalers, distribution centers and foodservice companies in California, Illinois, Missouri, Colorado, Nebraska, Minnesota, Wisconsin and Iowa. These companies distribute nationwide.

Eggs are packaged under the following brand names: Lucerne, Albertson, Mountain Dairy, Ralph’s, Boomsma’s, Sunshine, Hillandale, Trafficanda, Farm Fresh, Shoreland, Lund, Dutch Farms and Kemps. Eggs are packed in varying sizes of cartons (6-egg cartons, dozen egg cartons, 18-egg cartons) with Julian dates ranging from 136 to 225 and plant numbers 1026, 1413 and 1946. Dates and codes can be found stamped on the end of the egg carton. The plant number begins with the letter P and then the number. The Julian date follows the plant number, for example: P-1946 223.

There have been confirmed Salmonella enteritidis illnesses relating to the shell eggs and traceback investigations are ongoing.

Wright County Egg is fully cooperating with FDA’s investigation by undertaking this voluntary recall. Our primary concern is keeping Salmonella out of the food supply and away from consumers. As a precautionary measure, Wright County Egg also has decided to divert its existing inventory of shell eggs to a breaker, where they will be pasteurized to kill any Salmonella bacteria present.

Consumers who believe they may have purchased these shell eggs should not eat them but should return them to the store where they were purchased for a full refund. This recall is of shell eggs only. Other egg products produced by Wright County Eggs are not affected. Consumers with questions should visit www.eggsafety.org9.

Our farm strives to provide our customers with safe, high-quality eggs – that is our responsibility and our commitment.

What advice would you give to someone considering getting her first tattoo?

I’m currently abroad, and there is a tattoo artist here I’ve heard rave reviews about from people living in various parts of the world, and she’s already given several of my friends beautiful tats, so I’m considering getting a small one while I’m here. I drew the design for one nearly a year ago of a lotus flower with petals that look like peacock feathers and “pax et lux” (peace and light) written on the stem, and I’ve looked at it every day and am still in love with it, so I’m fairly confident I’d be happy with it for years to come. Since I’m currently in China I’d probably add the Chinese characters for peace and hope too. I’ve loved the beauty of peacocks since I was a little girl, and I’m drawn to the symbolism of the lotus flower. I’d get it in an area that could be covered easily but still be visible, like the top of my foot.

I’m 17, but it’s legal to get a tattoo here. My only concern besides my parents possibly freaking out is that I’ve only recently finished active treatment for advanced stage hodgkin’s lymphoma and my immune system is still a wee bit sluggish. I don’t know if the tattoo could pose any problems. As I wrote above, the tattoo parlor has an excellent reputation and looks very sanitary and professional.

What else should I take into consideration?
Why would it be creepy for a 70 year old to have such a serene tattoo? It’s not like it’s skull and bones or anything repulsive. Whatever. Why answer questions in the tattoo section if you’re anti-tattoos?

There is this movie called Food Inc. that I think everyone should watch (link)?

Check out the trailer and official site:

Read more about it:,_Inc.

See the 97% positive reviews on Rotten Tomatoes:

You can watch it On Demand if you have cox cable. It really opened my eyes. The chemicals that are put in our food can cause so much damage to our health. Cancer, lower immune system, headaches, dizzy spells, insomnia, aches, so much that makes us sick today can be prevented. Some of these chemicals are banned in countries because of the affects they have on people. And these big companies don’t want people to know about it. They have even fought for laws that now basically it make illegally to expose these companies. The head of our FDA is controlled by people who once controlled and oversaw the vary same companies they are supposed to be cracking down on. And these companies and the FDA seemed to have brain washed people into thinking that there is nothing to worry about, that all this stir is for no reason, that these “healthy freaks” make all this out to be more then it is. It all comes down to money. Anyways check the movie and the official site out.
Yeah but if you could die from nothing don’t you think it is better then dying from something? Wouldn’t you rather die from old age than from food? And wouldn’t you rather die with having lived a healthy life then a poor one? I bet you are just loved by these companies.
The comment was made for That Guy

A Question About Social Security Disability?

I got disabled to work in June of 2008 by my physician. I put in for my disability in July 2008. I got denied in August. I appealed it in September. All of 2008. I got 3 packets of papers from the person that is reviewing my case. One is another adult function report. This will make the 3rd one that I’ve filled out. I got a packet of papers that my primary care physician has to fill out after performing a complete physical on me. The third packet came with a letter stating that I have an appointment set up with a psychiatrist on February 17, 2009 for a mental evaluation. I wanted to know if this all is normal procedures. I’ve heard that Social Security hires private investigators to follow you around to see if you are faking. Is that true? Also is it true that you have to be mentally disturbed before you can get your disability? I’m really worried and scared. My doctor disabled me due to severe scoliosis and recurrent infections. To put it in plain English: A severe back pain and a very low immune system. I stay sick all the time. I catch just about everything that I am exposed to. Thanks to all that take the time to answer.
I’m 28. It is causing breathing problems. The scolosis is causing my immune system to get weaker too. I was born with a weak immune system. The scolosis made it worse. I take antibiodics on a monthly basis. I stay so darn sick.

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