Principles of Anatomy & Physiology

Discussions on The Human Body

pregnant and dealing with MRSA patients?

i work with the elderly and quite a few come in from hospital with MRSA. i know that if tested quite a lot of people would be found to have it, although it doesnt pose a risk unless its exposed to an open wound. my question is … we have currently got a lady who has MRSA in her sputum (spit/saliva) and if she coughs a lot it will be present in the air around her wont it? so anyway i know its not harmful if youve no open wounds but what if you inhale the contaminated air? i asked my nurse (at the home) this and she said theres not a risk unless you have a lower immune system, which obv you have in pregnancy … but she just said ‘oh you should be ok’ which wasnt too informative really lol. so i was just wondering if anyone knew the risks?

thanks, and sorry its a bit of a long one x

A ‘true’ bacterial Sinus Infection…..?

k, i’ll try and make this question short as its quite a long question hehe :)

If you had a true bacterial Sinus Infection, I’ve heard you’d probably need Antibiotics to help it, as your body would find it hard to fight? My question though is about complications of leaving a bacterial sinus infection…

- What are the differences/symptoms between Sinusitis and a bacterial infection that needs antibiotics?

- What age group of people are more at risk for complications from leaving a bacterial sinus infection? (e.g infection spreading to the eye/bone/brain etc….) As i’ve heard complications are very rare.

- How do you determine if you need Antibiotics for a sinus infection? Do you only need them when you are very ill/have a fever?

I have a sinus infection (problems have been on-going since January) i’ve had it since last thursday. My doctor has now given up and sent me for an appointment at the ENT Clinic on the 6th July! Which is quite a while away….. Will I need Antibiotics before then? Im just worried/paranoid about it spreading hehe :) My symptoms are – Some facial/nose pain, horrible taste/smell in my mouth, post-nasal drip with some green mucus, ear pressure and a bit feeling tired.

I’m a 20 year old female, with no big immune -system problems, e.g Diabetes/AIDS etc…. The only thing is, when I was younger I had quite alot of antibiotics for kidney problems which has now gone, and I dont want to become resistant to antibiotics, which I think might be happening.

Thanks so much for any answers you can offer! xxxx

Blood group help?

I am about to sit my module two biology AS exam with AQA (Making use of biology) for AQA’s spec A. I am completely confused by all the blood work I need to know. A new outlook on it all other than my teachers would be appreciated. Any help that can be given on:


* Cells of the immune system
* Non-Specific Immune Response
* Specific Immune Response
o Humoral Response (B-Cells)
o Cell-Mediated Response (T-Cells)
* Immunity
* Vaccinations

Blood Groups

* Blood Typing: ABO groups

The Rhesus Factor

* History behind the rhesus factor
* Inheriting the Rhesus blood group
* Rhesus Incomparability

Would be great.

Also if anybody could help me answer the following question, that would be great:

Blood from a person of blood group A contains A antigens. Explain why a person of blood group B cannot safely be given blood form a person of blood group A.

I know that it’s about agglutination etc, but none of this
really makes sense to me.

Thank you =]

Are there any mistakes in this text? it is very important thank you.?

Are there any mistakes in this text? it is very important thank you.

The last aspect I considered for the analysis of the article is the style used by the author. As I said before, J. Newmann introduces al lot of direct and rhetorical questions, she avoids direct speech and the lexis, though at some extent medical, is rather simple. From a syntactic point of view, sentences are not too long and do not contain too much information; passive voice, complex nominalization, and impersonal construction are not very frequent in this article. She alternates medical descriptions with personal anecdotes, such as the case of Cameron Liflander. The effect obtained by the author is a rather informal style: “Cameron Liflander has allergies. This makes him no different from more than 50 million other Americans today” (Paragrpah: 3), “The manifestations of allergy—sneezing, wheezing, itching, and rashes—are signs of an immune system running amok, attacking foreign invaders that normally mean no harm” (Paragraph: 8), “Those of us over 40 don’t remember having so much as a conversation about food allergies in school” (Paragraph: 13). Another aspect which drew my attention is the fact that the author constantly juxtaposes personal aspects, anecdotes and more special language and contents. The impression is that she tries to introduce more complex passages and information, using simple images, such as “they should have moved a cow into their living room” (Paragraph: 28)

Can you correct it for me! thank you sooo much :)

Heart Attacks without a cause ?

Is it possible ? I’ve just spotted a link on yahoo news entitled ‘Pilot has heart attack’ , tragic indeed – i haven’t read it so I don’t know the details.

However, I wanted to ask medical professionals, health experts, biologists, doctors….or young students in this field of study a question regarding heart attacks.

Can perfectly healthy people WITHOUT any history of ‘heart attacks/failures’ in their genes/family history, no smoking, alcohol or bad dieting – suddenly out of the blue, just ‘have a fatal heart attack’ ??

i ask this because surely then – if this is to be TRUE, my post-9/11 ‘mild fear’ of flying (i use to fly on planes before, never really fussed – but post 9/11 left me scared about dying in mid air etc, and the whole concept of how quickly will i go in a plane blast frightens the bejsus out of me) has now increased from x2 to x10 .

If NOBODY and i mean NOBODY no matter how much of a super healthy specimen they are, with no family history ties to heart failure/attacks can just suddenly – get a heart attack, then that means its time we mastered and implemented ‘auto piloting/navigating’ systems into passenger jumbo jets ?

ok thats what the 2nd pilot is there for – but what if one has a heart attack and the other just ‘snaps’ mentally and jumps out of the air craft for no apparent reason, or blows his own brains out !??

So can one be natuarly ‘immune’ to heart attacks or not ?
I don’t think its feasible and/or worthwhile going bananas over something such as mundane as ‘flying on a plane’, you barely know the gravity of my situation regarding ‘fear of flying’.

Therefore taking into account all the above, to suggest I ought to see the doctor and seek hypnotherapy is laughable. Where is the prognosis ? I can get on a plane and commute via it – but I just stated that there would certainly be the thought at the back of mind lingering as always ‘hmm’ lol.

A nurse shouldn’t hastily reccomend solutions like that esp. without a prognosis. heh.
Valerie I lick my lips in anticipation over viewing all the ‘calculations’ and ‘factual data’ you have gathered on the probability of being struck by lightening > having a random heart attack

I can’t simply ‘believe’ what you tell me , to be true ? facts please.

A question for women about male doctors?

I just wanted peoples opinions on this. Please read to the end before you answer. I know it’s quite long but please read to the end, cheers. Many people agree with me on this topic, and many disagree. Basically I think it is morally wrong for a male doctor to examine a woman with pelvic exams etc. I will explain.

When my girlfriend had to be examined by a male it kind of made me feel sick, to think that another male was doing very intimate exams on her. Many other men agree with me on this. Morally I think it’s wrong. But we have become a society of acceptance. Anything goes really. The end justifies the means.

Men are men. Putting on a white cloak and rubber gloves does not make you immune from perversion. It’s nature for men to be especially attracted to the female body. A male doctor may act professional but you can’t read his mind. Some women don’t actually care if the doctor gets aroused but I think that is quite disturbing. But for those women who think most male doctors are immune from this kind of thing because they have qualifications, please read what this doctor called Mark wrote:

“My considered opinion, after hearing serveral of my male colleagues talking informally about their practices in gynecology, is that men should not be gynecologists. Period. I simply don’t feel that a man can have the proper frame of mind to care for women in such an intimate setting, and despite all the talk of, “this is what they’re trained for,” etc, I hear their “locker-room talk” and I just think that gynecologic practice should be restricted to women.”

This is coming from a doctor. You can accuse him of being a liar but just put your thinking cap on for a moment. It’s human nature for men to get very aroused by an attractive woman when doing these kind of exam’s. You have been taught that because he’s a doctor everything is alright. If you think that most gynecologists are not viewing you sexually, you are kidding yourself. Things get said behind closed doors that you women don’t know about. Of course they will act all nice and professional, but for them not to get aroused by this, they are fighting against nature. I don’t buy it.

Now I don’t want to preach to people and I know what I have said may seem strange to some people, but that is because this world is not of God. For the longest of time it was the mid wives that delivered the babies, not males. So what happened? It started when man decided to set himself up as a god besides God. He slightly violated the laws and commandments of God until he moved them almost utterly. Now in the 21st century God has been extracted from the Educational system, work, etc. Society is degenerate.

It is wrong for a man to look upon another man’s wife naked. Wrong, wrong, wrong! Any woman that doesn’t think so cannot be in the mind of God. You have been taught he’s a doctor therefore it’s ok. Anytime a woman is placed in a position that she feels uneasy with a man checking her private parts, that is her inner spirit conversing with her suggesting to her that this is not right. Yes I am a Christian, but even before I was a Christian I felt strongly towards this, and many other men feel the same. For another man, doctor or no doctor, to examine another man’s wife or girlfriend is morally wrong.

And please don’t use the excuse about lesbian female doctors. Maybe you will get 1 in a hundred or even 1 in a thousand. And even if the female doctor is a lesbian, a woman does not get sexually aroused as quick as what men do. Men are much more likely to be perverts than women due to their testosterone nature. So please, don’t use lesbian doctors as an excuse because it just won’t hold up.

Now I want to make it clear that I respect doctors and think they do a great job. But when it comes to intimate exam’s I think it is very morally wrong for a male to examine a woman. They are not immune from getting sexually aroused no matter how much they have been trained, and like some doctor’s have said, they have heard what some doctors talk about in their “locker-room talk” Male doctors are human, and we should go back to how it has been for the last few thousand years, women being examined by females, not the other way around.

Do I need more antibiotics?

I finished a 7-day course of antibiotics yesterday for a chest infection – got a cold, which due to my asthma, went to my chest, and ended up feeling rotten and having an awful cough. I was also put on steroids which I am weaning off and am to finish in 5 more days. I have continued taking my preventive inhaler as prescribed throughout.

I went back to work 3 days ago after a week off sick. I am a good bit better, but still very lethargic, and still a horrible cough, and not sleeping great – not dying, but a long way from fine!

My question is, how do I know if this cough and general wrecked-ness is just the dose clearing my system, or if I need a second course of antibiotics? I haven’t had antibiotics in years, so shouldn’t be immune to them, and am reluctant to go back for a second course if I don’t need them.

Any advice gratefully received – I am the world’s most impatient patient and just want to get better as quick as I can!

Who knows exactly why I am being persecuted so hard by the british authorities and now by the public?

Well I now do. Let me tell the secret. The British police have wrongfully arrested me on a number of occaisions. They have imprisoned me wrongfully on a number of occaisions. I have hadf a case overturned on appeal and the Euopean court of human rights has a protocol that I MUST be compensated but guess what. A six month time limit exsists. So I can be prosecuted wether rightly or wrongfully Six years after the commission of alleged offences but They are immune after only SIX months. So I have no choice really but to air my views and make my thoughts public via this site? I have a criminal past as do many. The dark years of youth before one has grown in the mind takes its toll on many. this is cos the police actively prosecute the young cos the young have no idea that they are the sugject of Psychological warfair. They do this to top up their system of conflict ensuring a ready resevior of humanity to feed off and darw pay from. Also to employ the otherwise unemployable i.e. Those out of the forces the sycaphant Yes men. those that only know how to do as they are told. There is a better way. By setting good example by role modelling and showing care and capacity for understanding. but this takes some depth of character and this army od aggressives are short on that. The dynamics are in flux as the responsibility is being handed more onto the public. a little late and a little missinformed public but better late than never. Twenty new prisons builmt in the years prior to 9/11 well how co-incidental is that? Its an industry that serves many purposes but is it actually serving the public well. Is it in their best interests or rather the security services. Bare in mind that the prisons became privatised? Also in mind that the biggest growth industry in Iraque is the Americal Rumsveld security services. Could this be a government conspiracy, or worse? 3,000 lives is a real good deal compared to a full on war, when you consider the advancements made. All conflict brings about progression in many differing areas? A couple quarrels the next love liason is more intense and brings about better understanding. If one is an econominist, in cold monetary terms the death of many brings about revenues in many areas, growth in Chemical, drug, engineering , arnemants and science. Employing thousands. Hitler had 7,000000 unemployed in Germany when he came to power. How did he turn that around? Well financial backing was the only answer and where did the money come from, well bankers of course. Wars are sound banking investments. Where and how were the banks repaid? Well, in exchange for nutrality, is one way, Gold Teeth and Art treasures another. there is so much of this in Switzerland that they are still finding it in forgotten caves under mountains. Co-incidentally, Sir Eward Heath would denounce this conspiracy theory as all a lot of nonsense of course but is it? He is a Conservative??? What do you do with mans aggression , what do you do with the workforce when there is no work? So a Parasitical conflict system accomadates. Who gets shafted? Well look at the U.S.of A. Marines are the advertised glory seekers they pay the price on the front for the intelligencia militery in the rear? Who are the Marines, well a lot of Black colour is to be found as is a lot of N.Y. ghetto otherwise, no hopers? The rich, the intelligencia, the enlightened all benifit whilst we less able get the shaft? I am going to get back to me in a minute via another question. Lets hope that even though this subject matter is about psychology and that it is a E.C.H.R. protocol that I am free to express myself in any peaceful way that I choose, and that i will post it in the Psychology section lets see how long it stays there for??????

switching baby formula milk?

Hi, my daughter is curently on Cow & gate first formula milk & want to try her on cow on the comfort, This is the website reviews…
Cow & Gate Comfort Milks are nutritionally tailored to help with comfortable digestion for babies with sensitive tummies. Not only has the whey protein been broken down to make them easier to digest, they also contain special ingredients similar to those found in nature that help support their natural immune system1:

Special nutrients for easier digestion
Thicker formula for comfortable digestion
Help support their natural immune system1
Choosing the right teat

Cow & Gate Comfort Milks are thicker than some other milks. This is a great help for babies with sensitive tummies because the thickness gives a more even flow; so the milk goes down with less air. As the milk is thicker, it helps to use either a variable flow teat or one with a single hole (either a medium or fast flow). You’ll soon find one that suits the strength of your baby’s suck.

Changes to expect in your baby

When you start using Cow & Gate Comfort Milks you may notice a change in your baby’s nappies. Sometimes stools can be very loose and may also be greenish in colour. Don’t worry! This is because of the special ingredients in Cow & Gate Comfort Milks and it’s perfectly normal.

You might also notice your baby has increased wind – especially when you first start feeding with Cow & Gate Comfort Milks. Again, this is nothing to worry about – it’s just a sign that your baby’s digestive system is beginning to get used to the milk.

My question is will she put on more weight with this type of milk more than she would with the standard cow & gate first milk?
i dont need advise on weather to switch my milk thankyou i just want to know if she put on extra weight with it

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