Principles of Anatomy & Physiology

Discussions on The Human Body

8 Very Specific Questions About Endocrine System & Hormones?

I think I know most of these answers but I am worried that they are going to reappear next week as essay test questions and wonder if I couldn’t put the answers a little better, please review my answers at the bottom after reading my questions.
—the questions—-
1.In the first half of the 20th Century, thyroid endemic goiters were much more common than today. This reduction is thought to be the product of the government’s mandate that iodine should be added to common table salt. Describe why and how this would reduce the number of cases of thyroid goiters.
2.In patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, recent research suggests that the beta cells of the pancreatic islets are destroyed by the patient’s own immune system. Describe how this would result in the symptoms associated with diabetes mellitus.
3.In detail, describe why the hormones insulin and glucagon can be described as having an antagonistic relationship.
4.A new drug being tested by the FDA has been found to impair the ability of the liver to produce and store cholesterol. In terms of the endocrine system, what would happen to a patient who is taking this drug?
5.Explain the difference between the means by which a hydrophobic hormone and a hydrophilic hormone interact with a target cell.
6.Describe what is meant when an organ is referred to as a mixed gland. Provide three examples of this in the human body and for each, identify the “mixed” functions of the organ.
7.Explain how FSH and Testosterone together can stimulate normal rates of spermatogenesis, while neither of these hormones can do so alone.
8.When a woman is in the secretory phase of the uterine cycle, what phase is occurring in the ovarian cycle and how are the two related? What occurs in the uterine cycle when the ovarian cycle has reached the end of the luteal phase? Why?
——My answers——
1. W/o Iodine the thyroid cannot synthesize TH. w/o TH the pituitary receives no feedback & acts as if the thyroid were under stimulated. It produces extra TSH which stimulates hypertrophy of the thyroid gland.
2. When 80-90% of beta cells are destroyed and insulin is low the level of glucagon is elevated. It is the high ratio of glucagon to insulin that causes the signs.
3. insulin eats blood sugar? I don’t know how to properly describe this one
5 Hydrophilic must bind to a second messenger to enter cell whereas hydrophobic has the ability to pass through membranes
6 When they use the term “mixed” do they mean that interchangeably with accessory? Like the brain, heart, small intestine, bones, and adipose tissue all have more primary function yet they also secrete various hormones or do they mean something else by the term “mixed”?
7&8 (a little help would be appreciated)

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